solar panel output energy production

How much energy does a solar panel produce? Solar panel output explained

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Power output or wattage is an important factor to consider when comparing solar panel options. You may hear your solar installer say, “it’s a 255 Watt panel” or “the panel I am recommending is has a wattage of 300.” Or, when you are reading a quote from a solar installer, you might see numbers like 245W, 300W, or 345W next to the name of the panel. They are all referring to a solar panel’s wattage, capacity and power output.

Key takeaways about solar panel output

  • Solar panels usually produce between 250 and 400 Watts of power – your actual output will depend on factors like shading, orientation, and sun hours.
  • With a 30-panel system, you’ll be producing more than enough electricity per year to match all of your electricity usage, and maybe more!
  • You can freely compare solar quotes on the EnergySage Marketplace to see how different wattage panels will affect your unique system

How much energy does a solar panel produce?

For the sake of example, if you are getting 5 hours of direct sunlight per day in a sunny state like California you can calculate your solar panel output this way: 5 hours x 290 watts (an example wattage of a premium solar panel) = 1,450 watts-hours, or roughly 1.5 kilowatt-hours (kwh). Thus, the output for each solar panel in your array would produce around 500-550 kWh of energy per year.

All solar panels are rated by the amount of DC (direct current) power they produce under standard test conditions. Solar panel output is expressed in units of watts (W) and represents the panel’s theoretical power production under ideal sunlight and temperature conditions. Most home solar panels on the market today have power output ratings ranging from 250 to 400 watts, with higher power ratings generally considered preferable to lower power ratings. Pricing in solar is typically measured in dollars per watt ($/W), and the total wattage of your solar panels plays a significant part in the overall cost of your solar system.

Forget single solar panels–how much energy will your whole system produce?

Knowing how much energy a single solar panel produces is all well and good, but more importantly, how much solar power can your roof generate? Let’s do the math below:

Take our example above, where you’re getting an average of five hours of direct sunlight per day (an average amount of sunlight for most areas of California) and using solar panels rated at 290 W. Let’s say you install 30 of those premium solar panels on your roof–that nets you a 8,700 watt, or 8.7 kW solar panel system, near the average system size purchased on the EnergySage Marketplace. Multiply the five direct sunlight hours we estimated above by 8.7 kW, and we get approximately 43.5 kWh of electricity produced per day. And for one final conversion, if we multiply 43.5 by 365 days in a year, we get approximately 15,800 kWh of electricity produced in a full calendar year from a rooftop array of 30 premium, 290 W solar panels. Considering the average electricity use per year in the U.S. is around 10,600 kWh, that’s probably more than enough to power your home on solar.

This estimate is likely on the high end for most solar shoppers, and likely because of our estimate for the amount of sunlight the system will get (known as sun hours). To learn more about average sun hours, check out our blog here, where we take a look at average sunlight per year by location.

What can you power with a single solar panel?

In the example above, the solar panel is producing 1.5 kWh per day, which ends up being about 45 kWh per month. That’s enough energy to power some small appliances without too much issue, but if you want to cover the energy used by your property’s climate control systems or large cooking appliances, you’ll need more solar panels.

Why does solar panel output matter? Calculating panel wattage

Power output is an important metric for your home or commercial solar panel system. When you buy or install a solar photovoltaic (PV) energy system, the price you pay is typically based on the total power output of the solar panels in the system (expressed in watts or kilowatts).

Solar panel wattage represents a solar panel’s theoretical power production under ideal sunlight and temperature conditions. Wattage is calculated by multiplying volts x amps where volts represents the amount of force of the electricity and amperes (amps) refers to the aggregate amount of energy used. The financial savings you derive from the solar system is a result of the electric energy that it generates over time (expressed in kilowatt-hours).

Size vs. quantity: typical solar panel ratings and capacity

Power output on its own is not a complete indicator of a panel’s quality and performance characteristics. For some panels, their high power output rating is due to their larger physical size rather than their higher efficiency or technological superiority.

For example, if two solar panels both have 15 percent efficiency ratings, but one has a power output rating of 250 watts and the other is rated at 300 watts, it means that the 300-watt panel is about 20 percent physically larger than the 250-watt panel. That’s why EnergySage and other industry experts view panel efficiency as being a more indicative criterion of solar panel performance strength than solar capacity alone.

In practical terms, a solar panel system with a total rated capacity of 5kW (kilowatts) could be made up of either 20 250-Watt panels or 16 300-Watt panels. Both systems will generate the same amount of power in the same geographic location. Though a 5kW system may produce 6,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity every year in Boston, that same system will produce 8,000 kWh every year in Los Angeles because of the amount of sun each location gets each year.

The electricity generated by a solar PV system is governed by its rated power output, but it’s also dependent on other factors such as panel efficiency and temperature sensitivity, as well as the degree of shading that the system experiences and the tilt angle and azimuth of the roof on which it’s installed. As a general rule of thumb, it makes prudent financial sense to install a solar system with as much power output as you can afford (or that your roof will accommodate). That will ensure you maximize your savings and speed up the payback period of your solar energy system.

Find out more about average prices for solar across the country for 3kW,4kW5kW6kW, 7kW8 kW and 10kW solar systems. The EnergySage Solar Marketplace makes it easy for you to compare your savings from solar panels with various power output ratings.

How many watts of energy does a solar panel produce? Individual products compared

The graphic below presents a view of power output from many of the manufacturers who supply solar panels to the U.S. market. Because panel manufacturers often produce more than one line of solar panel models, the power output of most company has a significant range. The table below lists the minimum, maximum, and average power outputs of the solar panels within each manufacturer’s portfolio.

Electricity output (in Watts) of solar panel manufacturers

Solar Panel Manufacturer
BenQ Solar (AUO)250295277
Boviet Solar320340330
Canadian Solar225410320
CertainTeed Solar70400308
ET Solar255370306
First Solar420460440
Grape Solar160285237
Green Brilliance230300266
JA Solar260410329
Mission Solar Energy300390334
Mitsubishi Electric270280275
Neo Solar Power310330320
Peimar Group270330301
Phono Solar260350294
Recom Solar310350330
Renogy Solar250300268
RGS Energy556058
Solartech Universal310325318
SunSpark Technology310310310
Talesun Solar Co.400400400
Trina Solar Energy260320288
Vikram Solar320340330

What solar panels produce the most electricity?

Solar panels usually range in wattage output from around 250 watts to 400 watts, but some panels exceed the 400 watt mark. The solar panel with the highest watt is the SunPower E-Series, a commercial solar panel line. The top panel in the E-Series comes out at a whopping 435 watts. When just looking at residential solar panels, the top wattage panel available is the SunPower A-Series AC Module – the top panel in the A-Series line boasts a wattage of 425 watts.

Three Tips for Solar Shoppers

1. Homeowners who get multiple quotes save 10% or more

As with any big ticket purchase, shopping for a solar panel installation takes a lot of research and consideration, including a thorough review of the companies in your area. A recent report by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recommended that consumers compare as many solar options as possible to avoid paying inflated prices offered by the large installers in the solar industry.

To find the smaller contractors that typically offer lower prices, you’ll need to use an installer network like EnergySage. You can receive free quotes from vetted installers local to you when you register your property on our Solar Marketplace – homeowners who get 3 or more quotes can expect to save $5,000 to $10,000 on their solar panel installation.

2. The biggest installers typically don’t offer the best price

The bigger isn’t always better mantra is one of the main reasons we strongly encourage homeowners to consider all of their solar options, not just the brands large enough to pay for the most advertising. A recent report by the U.S. government found that large installers are $2,000 to $5,000 more expensive than small solar companies. If you have offers from some of the big installers in solar, make sure you compare those bids with quotes from local installers to ensure you don’t overpay for solar.

3. Comparing all your equipment options is just as important

National-scale installers don’t just offer higher prices – they also tend to have fewer solar equipment options, which can have a significant impact on your system’s electricity production. By collecting a diverse array of solar bids, you can compare costs and savings based on the different equipment packages available to you.

There are multiple variables to consider when seeking out the best solar panels on the market. While certain panels will have higher efficiency ratings than others, investing in top-of-the-line solar equipment doesn’t always result in higher savings. The only way to find the “sweet spot” for your property is to evaluate quotes with varying equipment and financing offers.

For any homeowner in the early stage of shopping for solar that would just like a ballpark estimate for an installation, try our Solar Calculator that offers upfront cost and long-term savings estimates based on your location and roof type. For those looking to get quotes from local contractors today, check out our quote comparison platform.

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62 thoughts on “How much energy does a solar panel produce? Solar panel output explained

  1. Mike Lopez

    Unfortunately, solar panels won’t perform the way they do in lab-controlled STC in the real world. Between how the solar panels are installed, the weather in your area, and the other equipment that makes up the solar system, your panels will produce less than the wattage rating.

  2. Craig Fisher

    Good article with a straight forward explanation, making it easy to understand. So many people don’t take the time to explore the cosmetics of a on or off-grid solar system. They tend to make assumptions that are laughable to those who have researched and done our due diligence in learning what solar power systems can or cannot do. I commend folks, like you, who have the patience and knowledge to advise those who have primarily questions made from assumptions. The perceptions of solar, by some people’s questions, I find hilarious. I’m glad there’s people who can answer them and keep a straight face.

  3. Mick

    Great article. We have customers asking us about solar output all the time – it would be great for anyone interested in solar panel installation to read up on this!

    You cover the basics such as calculating Wattage and the influence of the sun/geographic location, which all customers should know before purchasing. The tips you give are very genuine and useful for both sellers and consumers. The crunch of the article for me was stating that the best option when considering what to buy is to buy to the one with the most power output within budget.

    Listing the brands was so handy for our company as we’re at that point of choosing our products. We wanted to know which brands produce the most electricity, and you covered that. This has been a great help – thank you.

  4. Jerry Cousin

    If I want to use an immersion heater to prevent 250 gallons of water from freezing for a period of winter from November to the end of March what size of panel is required and can the immersion heater be connected directly to the solar panel or are other components required?

  5. Bill Hankla

    How many solar panels are required to create enough energy to produce a solar panel in one day?
    Measured in KW, how much energy is required to produce a solar panel? Consider mining of all raw materials, transportation, processing, fabrication of raw materials, facility costs, installation. What is useful life of the panel and how much energy is produced by the panel in that life time?

  6. Heizen Black

    You can see a label indicating the maximum power output from each of your solar panels. A solar panel’s highest capacity to generate power in optimal conditions in a laboratory is the basis for the wattage assigned. The process is called STC or Factory Standard Test Condition. When used in actual conditions, there’s an expected performance drop which is known as PTC.

    The amount of sunlight the panel gets and the location are the power output determiners. Nevertheless, this output is not the same all day or the period where there’s sunlight. Compared to the middle of the afternoon, it creates less energy in the morning or late afternoon.

    If there’s a shade such as clouds or anything that covers a portion of the whole module, it can lessen the generated power of the panels. Since there is a change in the sun’s position, there’s also less output during the summer and spring compared to fall and winter.

  7. Alan Fine

    For the question
    Take for example this panel: SunPower Corporation E-Series Commercial SPR-E20-435-COM. It generates 435 W and is 2 square meters. So that is 217 W/m2. Now, if efficiency is around 20%, then the available radiation must be 217/0.2 or about 1,000 W/m2.
    But according to the climate change reports I read about radiative flux, the incoming shortwave solar radiation striking Earth’s surface is only 160 W/m2. What gives?

    I think the answer is that although only 160W/m2 falls on the earth, the peak can be 1000W/m2. I think these panels may be rated that way. The actual energy is 1361 W/M2 so i guess on average you loose 1/4 day-night and sphere effect. Given no clouds the max people find I guess is 1000W/m2. but it can be as small as 100W/m2 depending on the clouds. So not an expert but that is a possible answer. Very good question, I had the same concern.


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