solar panel recycling

Recycling solar panels: environmental effects and your recycling options

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Solar panels have a lifetime of about 30 years. With the increasing number of solar panels being sold and installed in the United States each year, it’s only a matter of time before high volumes of silicon solar panels are at the end of their useful life and have to be disposed of. Solar panel recycling is still at a very early stage, but as the market continues to grow, it will have an important part to play in the solar industry.

More and more panels will reach the end of their life each year, and even now, old solar panels are beginning to become a problem as the majority of them find themselves in landfills where they are releasing toxins harmful to both natural and human health into our environment.

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Solar panel recycling is important for the future of solar

Solar panel recycling is important for both the planet and the solar industry’s future. Solar energy is inexpensive and environmentally friendly

Solar energy is inexpensive and environmentally friendly – but it is important to note that after about 30 years, many crystalline silicon solar panels will start seeing significant dips in energy production, and it may be time to replace them or dispose of them entirely. . 

Like any manufactured product, disposing of solar panels is hardly environmentally friendly. Heavy metals like cadmium and lead are found in solar cells, which can harm the natural environment if they are not recycled or disposed of properly. Additionally, solar panels that are carelessly thrown away can end up in large landfills, as do most of them now due to the solar panel recycling process’ infancy The Federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)  governs the solar recycling process. 

Besides environmental protection, recycling solar panels will be economically impactful as well. Some of the rare elements in photovoltaic (PV) cells like gallium and indium are being depleted from the environment over time. If we were able to recover those elements, we can conserve the limited amount available on earth and continue to use them for solar panels and other products. Furthermore, a 2016 study by the International Renewable Agency (IRENA) estimated that $15 billion could be recovered from recycling solar modules by the year 2050.

Solar recycling accessibility

While solar panel recycling isn’t widely available in the U.S. for all of the components in solar panels, there’s still a little time before the number of panels needing to be recycled gets too high. Groups like SEIA and Recycle PV are doing important groundwork for the industry, but there’s more to do in years to come.

What parts of solar panels can be recycled?

Recycling solar panels can only be effective if the materials used to build them are able to be used again, 30 or more years later. Solar panels are made from several components, including:

  • Silicon solar cells
  • Metal framing
  • Glass sheets
  • Wires
  • Plexiglas

Right away, it’s clear that many of the core components of solar panels can be recycled on their own. Metal, glass, and wiring can all be recycled and reused. Silicon cells, the component that is most essential to producing electricity, are a slightly different story. While silicon wafers are not recyclable like glass and plastic are, some specialty recycling companies are able to reuse silicon cells by melting them down and reclaiming the silicon and various metals.

The difficulty with recycling solar panels isn’t that the materials they are made from are hard to recycle; rather, it’s that they are constructed from many parts all used together in one product. Separating those materials and recycling them each in a unique way is a complex and potentially expensive process.

Solar panel recycling options

What are the current options for recycling your old solar panels? Solar panels have traditionally been recycled at general purpose glass recycling facilities, where the metal frames and glass parts are salvaged but the remaining parts are disposed of or burned. Nowadays, there are a few organizations working to make solar panel recycling both complete and mainstream:


Unlike the U.S., Europe has a developed solar market. Due to government regulations, European solar panel owners must recycle their panels once they are done using them. This has created a market for panel recyclers, one of which is Veolia.

Veolia partners with the non-profit PV Cycle in Europe to collect and recycle solar panels. They opened their first recycling plant in 2018, where robots separate glass, silicon, plastics, and metals from solar panels.

Recycle PV

One company looking to bring solar recycling to the U.S. is Recycle PV. Because of the lack of governmental solar recycling requirements, the company has trouble operating on a wide scale locally. Despite this, Recycle PV is partnering with PV Cycle to help move U.S. panels to recycling facilities in Europe. While currently only a small operation compared to some European panel recycling efforts, groups like Recycle PV will almost definitely see the demand for their recycling services grow over the next several years.

Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA)

SEIA has a PV Recycling Working Group that chooses recycling partners offering benefits to SEIA members. These partners give special pricing to the SEIA members, and in exchange, recycle their solar panels at special facilities. An example of a SEIA recycling partner is the company Cleanlites. Cleanlites operates recycling facilities that aren’t dedicated only to solar but can handle recycling panels and other solar equipment.

Manufacturer recycling

Another example of solar recycling efforts comes from manufacturers. Companies like SunPower and First Solar run global recycling programs for their customers, allowing them to return old solar panels (often through groups like PV Cycle) to the manufacturer to be recycled or repurposed.

Solar panel recycling may not be widespread yet, but solar energy is still a great financial investment that is environmentally friendly as well. By going solar now, you can cut your electric bill and start saving right away. Sign up for the EnergySage Solar Marketplace to receive free quotes from our network of qualified, pre-vetted installers so you can start the process of going solar.

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15 thoughts on “Recycling solar panels: environmental effects and your recycling options

  1. Colin Green

    Dear David Munoz, NOT true that seldom have we ever paid the true price of anything we consume, we do one way or another. BUT, very few products are aggressively SUBSIDISED like solar panels. Peoples taxes are paying for an industry to produce a product which is at the moment NOT recyclable without an extra cost to, guessed it, the tax payer. A simple online search will show the extent of the CONFLICTS OF INTEREST in the business, and academic world in regards to the promotion and advocacy of solar panels etc. There are many government departments who’s livelihood depends on government commitment to solar etc. What are they going to tell you ?????? Meanwhile, while you are saving the planet with solar panels, the worlds population has grown by 80,000,000 people per year, all of which will add to the demand you are so keen to reduce. Do you see a problem here????

  2. Caroll Marston

    From what I’ve read in the past, the true costs of nuclear power plants has never been published, including the future costs if/when the spent material buried in the earth begins to leech out because of deterioration, seismic activity or a combination of both.

    Usually the known need sparks the interest in a project and the market begins to fund the research when it begins to see a profit somewhere. Let’s not panic yet and go back to cutting down trees to burn in our wood stoves because we don’t see the recycling efforts scaling up…..

  3. Richard Schuman

    A toxic environmental catastrophe in the making. Recycling only happens when good money can be made from the outcome with minimal expense and effort. That black goo that is the heart of PV panels will never be of any practical use. It will be stockpiled like nuclear waste if it is from commercial facilities and they have been diligent to budget for this. Otherwise, it will end up in landfills and back road ditches where it will leech into the soil. The only practical solution is in prevention.

  4. David Munoz

    Jon Lerensen, the same can be said of everything we produce as humans. Seldom have we ever paid the true external costs of the commodities and materials that we purchase and use, unless we are unlucky and get sick as a result of a response to the poisonous (or carcinogenic) compounds that result. In real life we are now faced with severe and immediate global challenges, with large uncertainties. We must find a path that will necessarily include PV panels, windmills and batteries, but will also be accompanied with energy conservation measures. Many of these questions have already been answered through Life Cycle Analyses. A simple online search will lead to numerous papers on the topic. The results that I have seen on these analyses point clearly to a world with more PV panels, windmills and batteries. But, we have to recycle these materials responsibly. Progress is being made with energy conservation through efficient and long-life lighting (LEDS), improvements in appliance efficiency and in building efficiencies. For those of us that can afford it, this move toward efficiency is a relatively simple task, and the savings in energy result in long-term savings in our bank accounts. However, the poor will have more difficulty with this efficiency move and should be aided in this move for the betterment of us all. As you can see there is much work to do. Its better to get started on the path, than to simply complain about the inevitable challenges.

  5. Jon Lorensen

    You can bet that there will be a disposal cost tacked on to solar installation to encourage recycling. That of course will be added to the cost of installation. I really hope that solar has brighter future. But I am hard pressed to see any environmental savings given what it take to make a PV panel. Much less what the cost of any battery backup system would cost as well as any cost associated with recycling the batteries. One needs to view the entire system. Not just 50% of it.

    1. johnc

      Just doing some research , and came upon your comment. I live in CA, and our state has a recycling fee tacked on anything electronic. Consumer pays for it along with sales tax. Our house has solar panels and they came with a disposal fee. We are leasing them, so Tesla ate that.


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