commercial and industrial solar installation

Commercial and industrial (C&I) solar panel installations: an overview

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Commercial and industrial (C&I) property owners can benefit from installing solar energy on business or factory roofs, or as ground-mounted systems on a campus. Many corporations have massive manufacturing facilities with expansive, flat roof space – AKA the perfect place to generate clean, inexpensive solar energy.

Find out what solar panels cost in your area in 2021

What is a commercial solar panel system?

Most commercial and industrial solar installations are substantially larger than a typical residential solar panel system. For perspective, the average size of a residential solar panel system is around 8 kilowatts (kW), while a commercial solar energy system can be up to several megawatts (MW) in size, depending on the electricity needs of the facility. 

Commercial solar is considered “distributed generation,” meaning that the energy produced by the system is used at or near the point of generation. Distributed generation projects, such as rooftop or ground-mounted residential solar, are usually connected to the local electric grid. This allows commercial property owners to take advantage of net metering, a policy enabling distributed generation customers to send unused electricity back to the grid in exchange for electricity bill credits.

What does a commercial or industrial solar installation look like?

The solar panels used in commercial and industrial-scale installations are oftentimes larger than residential panels. Large-scale commercial solar installations usually use 96-cell or greater solar panels, meaning each panel is made of 96 or more individual solar photovoltaic cells. For comparison, a typical residential solar panel will have 60 or 72 cells.

There are often many installation options for C&I projects, from factory roof space, to solar carports in parking lots, or large ground-mounted arrays. Unlike most rooftop systems, commercial and industrial solar systems often include intricate racking systems to elevate and tilt the panels. Some commercial panel arrays even use racking with tracking capabilities, allowing the panels to face different directions throughout the day – this helps increase the amount of direct sunlight that hits the panels (and maximizes electricity production!)

Incentives for commercial solar installations


There are multiple rebates and incentives available for commercial solar installations. In addition to the investment tax credit (ITC) that allows for the deduction of 26 percent of the cost of the solar energy system from federal taxes (for now!), commercial property owners can write off the value of their solar installation through either Bonus Depreciation or the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS). This incentive reduces businesses’ tax burden to speed up returns on solar investments.

How much does a solar system cost?

Because each commercial solar project is highly unique, it’s difficult to accurately determine how much commercial installations generally cost. However there are a few trends to be aware of when it comes to commercial solar pricing.

Compared to residential solar, cost per watt ($/W) is almost always a good deal lower for commercial installations. This is due to economies of scale – as the system size goes up, the additional cost of each panel is lower, so overall, the average cost to install each panel is lowered.

When it comes to the average total cost of a commercial solar panel installation, the best we can do is a broad range. Typically, commercial installations will range from $100,000 for a small business up to $1 million or more for larger businesses with high energy needs. The more electricity you use, the higher the cost will be, but the larger your savings can be over time!

Advantages of going solar for businesses

There are many good reasons for businesses to generate their own electricity with solar panels:

Solar saves businesses money

One of the best reasons to install a commercial or industrial solar panel system is the financial benefit. Offsetting some or all of your electricity use at a factory or small business with solar reduces electric bills from day one. Plus, solar panel systems operate effectively for over 30 years, and once your business makes back the upfront investment for their system, you can generate free electricity from their panel system for many years after.

Solar helps foster a sustainable brand image

Solar panels are a visible signal that your company is committed to sustainability and a clean energy future. How companies and corporations are responding to environmental responsibility is an increasingly important issue; by taking action to support clean, renewable energy, companies can signal to potential customers that they care about more than just turning a profit. Installing commercial grade solar is a great way to generate positive buzz with stakeholders and the local community.

Installing solar supports the local economy

Many of the highest quality solar panel installation companies are local businesses, and contracting with them for a large commercial installation increases demand for high-quality, local labor. Additionally, the money spent on installation goes right into your local economy.

Start your solar journey today with EnergySage

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About Jacob Marsh

Jacob is a researcher and content writer at EnergySage, where he focuses primarily on current issues–and new technology!–in the solar industry. With a background in environmental and geological science, Jacob brings an analytical perspective and passion for conservation to help solar shoppers make the right energy choices for their wallet and the environment. Outside of EnergySage, you can find him playing Ultimate Frisbee or learning a new, obscure board game.

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